The novel notion of a model
A model is a well-formed, adequate and dependable instrument that represents other origins within some context based on criteria of adequacy and dependability commonly accepted by its community of practice. A model has - as an instrument - its background with a undisputable grounding of the sub-discipline and with a basis consisting of chosen elements from the sub-discipline. A model is functioning if it is combined with utilisation/deployment methods. A functioning model is effective if it can be successfully deployed according to its deployment scenarios and its portfolio. They thus function in the application scenario ('deployment games').
An instrument is justified by a justification, i.e. by empirical corroboration (according to purpose, background, etc.) for the representation of the origins that is supported by some argument calculus, by rational coherence and conformity explicitly stated through formulas, by falsifiability that can be given by an abductive and/or inductive logical system, and by stability and plasticity (depending on the scope, grounding, basis, context and quality) explicitly given through formulas.
The instrument is sufficient by its quality characterisation for internal quality, external quality and quality in use or through quality characteristics such as correctness, generality, usefulness, comprehensibility, parsimony, robustness, novelty etc.
Justification and sufficiency characterise the signification of an instrument for deployment, reliability and degree of precision efficiency for satisfying the deployment necessities, and extent of coverage depending on deployment.
It is typically combined with some assurance evaluation.
A well-formed instrument is dependable
for some of the justification properties and some of the sufficiency characteristics if
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